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12/9/2021by admin

Actor-Network Theory (ANT)
Actor-Network Theory suggests that human and non-human factors are equally influential in the success of technological innovation and scientific knowledge-creation. The theory looks at how networks are formed and how these networks contribute to these successes. It suggests that no one person or thing is solely responsible for these advancements. Therefore, both an actor and a network are responsible for achieving these outcomes.

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Adaptive Structuration Theory (AST)
Groups and organizations create rules and resources which are defined as structures. These structures form social systems which develop a life of their own. The quality of the structure affects decision making, and decisions also affect the structure.

A framing method to clearly define end of one frame and start of another, incorporating errors detection as well. Link control protocol (LCP) for bringing communication lines up, authenticating and bringing them down when no longer needed. Network control protocol (NCP) for each network layer protocol supported by other networks.

  1. Voice communication is an integral part of success for any business. A telephone system provides a way for employees to communicate with existing and prospective customers, to conduct negotiations, transactions or to simply answer inquiries.
  2. The International Standards Organization (ISO) developed the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. It divides network communication into seven layers. In this model, layers 1-4 are considered the lower layers, and mostly concern themselves with moving data around. Layers 5-7, called the the upper layers, contain application-level data.

Agenda Setting Theory
Agenda Setting Theory states that mass media organizations determine what the general population considers newsworthy by deciding how much attention a news story receives. The term salience transfer is commonly used and refers to the ability of the media to transfer their agendas onto the public.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive Dissonance is the psychological conflict that results from holding two contradictory or incompatible beliefs or attitudes. For example, one can like a person, but disapprove of their habits. The theory suggests that a person looks for balance in their beliefs. Therefore, in order to reduce dissonance, one will avoid hearing opposing viewpoints or change their beliefs to match their actions.

Communication Accommodation Theory
Communication Accommodation Theory describes when people accommodate or adjust their communication styles to others. These changes in verbal and nonverbal styles are done through two ways: divergence and convergence. Divergence is used to highlight group identity through touting the differences of the group they identify with. Divergence is often used by groups with strong ethnic or racial pride. Convergence is used more often by powerless individuals for social approval and focuses on matching the communication styles of the person with whom they are speaking to.


Confirmation Bias
Confirmation Bias is a theory which explains why people view the world selectively. It states that people continue to view the world selectively by choosing information and media which reinforces their beliefs.

People who are more cognitively complex will be more successful communicators because they possess the ability to create customized and sophisticated messages that pursue multiple communication goals.

Cultivation Theory
Cultivation Theory argues media shapes a persons sense of reality. Because many acquire information through mediated sources rather than direct experience, their world view becomes influenced by these sources. For example, Cultivation Theory suggests that people who would be defined as heavy television viewers see the world as more violent that it actually is.

Cultural Studies
Cultural Studies theorists suggest that mass media represents ideologies of the dominant class in a society. They believe that media is influenced by profit, since corporations run the media. Cultural Studies theorists are curious about the effect of power on culture.

Dramatism states that life is drama. Therefore, one can understand a speaker’s motive through the dramatistic pentad of act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. The greatest motive of rhetoric is to purge guilt, and there can only be persuasion if the audience identifies with the speaker.

Elaboration Likelihood Model
The Elaboration Likelihood Model looks at how attitudes are formed and changed. It suggest there are two routes of persuasion. The central route is where attitudes are changed through a logical thought process. This route requires more attention, but is also allows for the major change. The peripheral route uses surface characteristics, such as speaker’s credibility, to judge the message. This route creates smaller shifts in attitude.

Face Negotiation Theory
Face Negotiation Theory highlights conflict style differences between collectivist and individualistic cultures. Collectivist cultures place value on the group and therefore adopt a conflict style of avoiding or integrating to give others mutual face. Individualistic cultures place value on the individual and in an attempt to protect self-face, they adopt a dominating conflict style.

“Frames” are defined as the way in which we interpret media presented to us, and that these frames function as a way to organize social meanings. Since the media decides what we view and how we view it, they also influence the way in which we interpret information. In a sense, they tell us what to think about, and how to think about it.

Genderlect theory sees masculine and feminine communication styles as two different cultural dialects — neither of which is more superior than the other. Genderlect states that these forms of communication are simply different in their focus: masculine discourse is based on building status and independence, while feminine conversation is used as a way to build rapport and connection.

Groupthink is when groups make faulty decisions because they fail to critically analyzing their options and weigh alternatives. This typically occurs in highly cohesive groups who are more concerned with maintaining group unity than finding the best option.

Hypodermic Needle Theory
The Hypodermic Needle Theory, also known as the ‘magic bullet’ theory, says the media has a powerful and direct effect on audiences by ‘injecting’ them with messages. The Hypodermic Needle Theory no longer carries the respect it once did since its accuracy was found to be questionable.

Muted Group Theory
Muted Group Theory states that because language is man-made women remain reduced and excluded. Because words and norms have been created by men, women are disadvantaged in public. As women become less muted and more vocal, the dominant position of males in society will diminish.

The Narrative Paradigm
The Narrative Paradigm suggests that we as a people are storytelling animals. It states that instead of using traditional logic, we are more open to judging the credibility of a speaker through narrative logic, which analyzes if their stories are well put together (coherence) and sound true (fidelity). Narrative logic allows those who are not educated in oratory and persuasion to make judgments; therefore, allowing for a more democratic system.

Priming refers to the ability of the media to control the interpretation of new information by feeding the public prior information. This prior context set frames of reference within the audience members, which ultimately effects their judgments. For example, the media has primed us as to what constitutes a credible person.

Proxemic theory looks at how different cultures develop and define space. On an unconscious level people internalize three types of space: 1) intimate space: our personal “bubble” for friends and intimates relationships; 2) social and consultative spaces: the space for routine social interactions with acquaintances and strangers; 3) public space: the space where impersonal and anonymous interactions occur. Each culture creates their own distances for what they feel is appropriate.

Social Exchange Theory
Social Exchange Theory posits an ‘economic’ exchange for in interpersonal relationships. Meaning, the relationships is enhanced by satisfying each others self-interest. In this theory, self-interest is not regarded as a bad thing, but rather as a concept that builds the relationship.

Social Learning Theory
Social Learning Theory argues that people learn from each other through observing, imitating, and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Social learning theory explains how human behavior can be shaped by continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, an environmental influences.

Social Penetration Theory
Social Penetration Theory looks at how superficial relationships evolve to intimate relationships. The theory states it is a gradual evolution due primarily to self-disclosure between parties. But, while this self-disclosure can be effective in creating intimate relationships, it can also leave one or more persons vulnerable.

Spiral of Silence
The Spiral of Silence theory states that people are less likely to express their opinions if they are the minority. This is because they fear they will be isolated by the majority and suffer social rejection.

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Standpoint Theory
Standpoint Theory claims that each person is seated in a different rank among the social hierarchy. Because of this, each person views the social climate from a different vantage point, which only provides a small look at the social whole. But the theory also claims that those who are lower on the social ladder tend to have a greater understanding of the social whole, rather than those higher up.

Symbolic Interactionism Theory
Symbolic Interaction Theory suggests that the concept of self is created by three principles: 1) Meaning: that we act towards and things according to the meanings we apply to them. 2) Language: that we negotiate meaning through symbols. 3) Thought: that thought modifies our interpretations. Symbolic interactionism implies that without communication there would be no self concept.

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
Theory of Planned Behavior is the same as Theory of Reasoned Action in that it says personal attitudinal judgments and social-normative considerations influence a person’s intentions to perform a behavior, but TPB adds a third element: perceived behavioral control. This element being the perception of how easy or difficult it is to perform the behavior.

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
Theory of Reasoned Action looks at how behaviors can be influenced by influencing a person’s intentions. TRA states that two main factors tell a person whether or not to perform a behavior: 1) personal attitudinal judgments: the evaluation of the action; and, 2) social-normative considerations: what one believes others think they should do.

Uncertainty Reduction Theory
Uncertainty Reduction Theory states that when strangers meet, their primary goal is to reduce levels of uncertainty. Uncertainty meaning, being unsure of how to behave (or how the other person will behave), and unsure of what to think of the other person. For example, if they like the person or do not like the person. According to this theory, they will use communication to reduce this uncertainty.

Uses and Gratifications Theory
The Uses and Gratifications Theory assumes audiences actively seek out media to satisfy individual needs. With this assumption, the Uses and Gratifications Theory looks to answer three questions: what do people do with the media, what are their underlying motives for using said media, and what are the pros and cons of this individual media use.

Estimate the attention span of your audience, then cut it in half. That's a good length for your presentation.
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Successful leaders are able to meaningfully communicate with others.

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Steve Jobs inspired his employees to strive for perfect hardware products. Jack Welch mentored the senior leadership team of GE to new heights. Jeff Bezos is known for articulating the Amazon ethos clearly to employees and the world. All of these leaders possess outstanding leadership skills.

Here are 14 ways you can improve your communication skills in order to become a more effective leader.

1. Learn the basics of nonverbal communication.

One study found that nonverbal communication accounted for 55 percent of how an audience perceived a presenter. That means that the majority of what you say is communicated not through words, but through physical cues.

To communicate clearly and confidently, adopt proper posture. Avoid slouching, folding your arms or making yourself appear smaller than you are. Instead, fill up the space you are given, maintain eye contact and (if appropriate) move around the space.

Related: 8 Great Tricks for Reading People's Body Language

2. You have to over-communicate just to communicate.

In 1990, a graduate student at Stanford University was able to prove that presenters overestimate how much listeners understand. In a study that become known as “the tappers and the listeners,” one set of participants was asked to tap the melody of 120 famous songs. The other participants were asked to guess what song was being tapped.

Tappers estimated that 50 percent of the songs tapped would be correctly identified. In reality, only 2.5 percent of songs were correctly identified. This study shows that it is important to communicate clearly, and to over-communicate when sharing new ideas. As this study indicates, it is likely that the audience will fail to absorb as much as you expect.

3. Avoid relying on visual aids.

Steve Jobs instituted a rule at Apple that banned all PowerPoint presentations. Similarly, Sheryl Sandberg instituted a PowerPoint ban at Facebook. Both leaders realized that PowerPoint presentations can hinder rather than help communication.

Be prepared to use words, compelling storytelling and nonverbal cues to communicate your point with the audience. Avoid using visual aids unless absolutely necessary.

Related: 4 Ways to Keep Your PowerPoint Presentation Off Life Support

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4. Ask for honest feedback.

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As with most leadership skills, receiving honest feedback from peers, managers and members of your team is critical to becoming a better communicator. If you regularly solicit feedback, others will help you to discover areas for improvement that you might have otherwise overlooked.

5. Engage the audience in discussion.

Regardless of how compelling the speaker is, all audiences have limited attention spans. To become a more effective communicator, make presentations and discussions interactive.

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Ask the audience a question, encourage people to call out their thoughts during a brainstorming session or at the very least ask hypothetical questions to stimulate the audience.

Related: 10 Ways to Engage Your Audience During an Important Meeting

6. Start and end with key points.

Think back to the “tappers and listeners” study mentioned earlier. Clear communication is of paramount importance. To ensure that the audience understands the key takeaways from a presentation, reiterate key points at the start and finish. This can also be accomplished by providing attendees with a one-pager that includes key points the audience should consider throughout the presentation.

7. Use the PIP approach.

A common framework used by business experts, like those at McKinsey, is the purpose, importance, preview (PIP) approach to presentation introductions. Following this approach, the speaker first states the purpose of the presentation, and then shares why presentation is important by reviewing implications and possible outcomes.

Finally, the presenter gives a preview of the topics that will be discussed. This framework is a useful way to get audiences excited about the presentation, helping them to focus on your message and on key takeaways.

8. Record important presentations for posterity.

It can take a good deal of time and energy to communicate effectively. In cases where you may need to give the same presentation multiple times, consider recording it and sharing it in the future.

Platforms such as Wistia and Zoom allow speakers to record themselves delivering a presentation. These video-recording platforms allow presenters to edit the video to make it more engaging and helpful. They also provide admins with metrics about viewer engagement.

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Recorded presentations can be especially helpful for communicators who need to regularly provide training in a company that is hiring employees quickly.

9. Master the art of timing.

While some of their jokes might not be appropriate for the workplace, standup comedians are certainly effective communicators. Comedians including Chris Rock and Dave Chappelle are able to host compelling 90-minute comedy shows, in part because they have mastered the art of timing.

Great comedians, like all great communicators, are able to feel out their audience to determine when to move on to a new topic or when to reiterate an idea.

Related: Ask These 7 Questions to Get the Honest Feedback You Need

10. Get comfortable speaking extemporaneously.

When lawyers present a case in front of the United States Supreme Court, they typically speak extemporaneously. That is to say, the lawyers write down a series of topics they intend to discuss, but they do not memorize what they would say word for word. This method of communicating allows the lawyers presenting a case to cover all of the necessary points, while giving them flexibility as to how to communicate based on audience reaction or questions.

Business communicators should consider adopting an extemporaneous speaking style. It takes practice, but it will allow for more natural communication, and can help with audience engagement.

11. Get to know your audience.

To communicate effectively, it is important to get to know your audience first. Each audience is different, and will have different preferences and cultural norms that should be considered when communicating. A good way to understand expectations is to ask members of the audience for examples of good communicators within the organization.

Related: 10 Ways to Engage Your Audience During an Important Meeting

12. Add novelty to improve audience retention.

A recent study revealed that people generally retain more information when presented with novel, as opposed to routine, situations. To help audience members retain information, consider injecting some sort of novel event into a presentation. This might be something funny, or something that simply catches people by surprise.

13. Focus on earning respect instead of laughs.

It can be tempting to communicate with others in a lighthearted way; after all, this can be a good way to make friends in a professional setting. But remember that the most successful communicators are those who have earned respect, rather than laughs. While telling a joke or two to warm up an audience can be effective, avoid ending a presentation with a laugh.

Related: 7 Essentials for an Elevator Pitch That Gets People to Listen

14. Be a listener.

“Listen more than you talk.” This is what Richard Branson tells business people who want to connect with others. To communicate effectively, first listen to what others have to say. Then you can provide a thoughtful answer that shows you have taken those ideas into account.


Communicating clearly is one of the most effective skills you can cultivate as a business leader. Remember to communicate using nonverbal and verbal cues. Listen carefully to what others have to say, and over-communicate in novel ways to ensure the content of the conversation sticks with the audience.

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